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GY-dor-neuroptica

DOR NEUROPÁTICA

A Dor neuropática foi o tema escolhido pela IASP para assinalar o Ano Global Contra a Dor, e pela EFIC para assinalar o Ano Europeu Contra a Dor, entre 2014 e 2015. Durante este ano serão desenvolvidas acções dedicadas a este tema, para pacientes e profissionais de saúde, que podem ser consultadas no site da IASP e da EFIC.

A Dor Neuropática é uma dor que surge como consequência direta de uma lesão ou doença que afeta o sistema somato-sensitivo.

Apesar de estarem disponíveis vários fármacos e guidelines para o tratamento da dor neuropática, surgem dos Estados Unidos e da Europa, evidências de que não estão a ser amplamente utilizadas.

Como consequência, continuam a existir muitos doentes sub-tratados, ou mesmo não tratados da forma mais adequada.

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Neuropathic pain is defined as pain that arises as a direct consequence of a lesion or diseases affecting the somatosensory system.

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HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a distal symmetrical polyneuropathy that develops in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The neuropathy is commonly painful.

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General population studies, using validated screening instruments, have found that 7–8% of adults currently have chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics.

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Phantom limb pain is pain perceived as arising in the missing limb; Stump (Residual limb) pain is pain perceived in the amputation stump or residual limb; Phantom sensations are any sensations of the missing limb, except pain.

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Understanding the neurophysiological, cellular, and molecular mechanisms that contribute to neuropathic pain is important for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Many preclinical models of neuropathic pain have been developed.

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Allodynia and hyperalgesia are common and bothersome symptoms in patients with pain due to a disease or injury of the nervous system. Allodynia is pain due to a stimulus that does not normally elicit pain. Hyperalgesia is increased pain from a stimulus that normally provokes pain.

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Central neuropathic pain is caused by a lesion or disease of the central somatosensory nervous system.
Central post stroke pain can occur after a cerebrovascular accident. Other common causes of central neuropathic
pain include spinal cord injury (including syringomyelia), multiple sclerosis, and traumatic brain injury.

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Peripheral neuropathy is a disease or degenerative state of peripheral nerves in which motor, sensory, or autonomic nerve fibers may be affected. Polyneuropathy is a generalized, roughly symmetric hereditary or acquired disorder affecting peripheral nerves. It is the most common form of peripheral neuropathies. Small-fiber neuropathy is a subtype of sensory neuropathies, which exclusively or predominately affects small diameter fibers (Aδ) and unmyelinated (C) fibers.

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